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공중보건/전염병학 > 공중보건 > Gracey's Meat Hygiene, 11th Edition

 
Gracey's Meat Hygiene, 11th Edition
상품명 : Gracey's Meat Hygiene, 11th Edition
제조회사 : Wiley-Blackwell
원산지 : USA
적립금액 : 5,610원
소비자가 : 187,000
판매가격 : 187,000원
수량 EA
 
배송조건 : (조건)
   
 
Gracey's Meat Hygiene, 11th Edition


ISBN: 9781118650028
352 pages
January 2015, Wiley-Blackwell


Description
Gracey’s Meat Hygiene, Eleventh Edition
is the definitive reference for veterinarians working in meat hygiene control.  This new edition of a classic text reflects the recent significant changes in science, legislation and practical implementation of meat hygiene controls in the UK, Europe and worldwide since the 10th edition was published in 1999.  An excellent practical guide for teaching food hygiene to veterinary students worldwide, in addition to laying the foundations of food animal anatomy, pathology and disease.  New chapters address the increased concern of both the public and inspectors to issues of animal welfare and recognise the role of the profession, and interest from the consumer, in environmental protection.

Key features include:

  • Fully updated new edition, in a refreshed design with colour photographs and illustrations throughout. 
  • Includes new content on meat hygiene inspection covering the components of an integrated food safety management system as well as animal health and welfare controls in the ‘farm to fork’ system.
  • A practical approach to health and safety in meat processing is outlined by identifying the hazards and then describing how these can best be controlled.
  • With contributions from veterinary and industry experts, this edition is both a valuable teaching aid and a practical reference for veterinarians and all food business operators and their staff.


    Table of Contents
    Contributors xi

    Preface xiii

    Acknowledgements xv

    1 The food animals 1

    Dietary factors 2

    World livestock production 3

    UK meat plants and throughputs 4

    Cattle 4

    Breeds 4

    Systems of beef production 6

    Growth promoters 7

    Definitions 7

    Sheep 7

    Definitions 9

    Pigs 10

    Pig breeds 10

    Pig breeds in the United Kingdom 11

    Pig production 11

    Pig meat production 13

    Glossary of terms 13

    Additional facts 13

    Goats 13

    Poultry 14

    Definitions 14

    Rabbits 15

    Deer 16

    Handling of deer 17

    References 17

    Further reading 17

    Form animal welfare council 17

    2 Anatomy 19

    Descriptive terms 19

    Osteology and arthrology 19

    Bones 19

    Digestive system 21

    Tongue 21

    Stomach 22

    Mucous membranes 22

    Intestines 23

    Liver 24

    Pancreas (gut sweetbread) 25

    Respiratory system 26

    Lungs 26

    Pluck 26

    Circulatory system (heart, arteries, capillaries and veins) 26

    Heart 26

    Portal circulation 27

    Spleen (melt) 27

    Lymphatic system 28

    Haemal lymph nodes 28

    Lymph nodes of the ox 29

    Nodes of the head and neck 30

    Nodes of the chest and forequarter 30

    Nodes of the abdomen and hindquarter 31

    Lymph nodes of the pig 33

    Head and neck 33

    Other nodes 33

    Urogenital system 34

    Urinary organs 34

    Genital organs 34

    Kidney 34

    Reproductive system 34

    Uterus 34

    Udder 36

    Endocrine system 36

    Thymus 36

    Adrenal (suprarenal) bodies 36

    Testicles (testes) 37

    Collection and yield of glands 37

    Skin 37

    Horns 37

    Muscular system 37

    Connective tissue 38

    Fat 38

    Determination of age by dentition 38

    Teeth 38

    Determination of sex 39

    Cattle 39

    Sheep 40

    Pigs 41

    Horse and ox differentiation 41

    Debasement of food

    (adulteration and substitution) 41

    Food tampering 43

    References 43

    Further reading 43

    3 Meat establishment construction and equipment 45

    Site 45

    Environmental statement 45

    Submission of plans 46

    Area size 46

    Facilities 47

    Equipment design 50

    Pest control 51

    Small abattoir units 51

    Lairage 52

    Cattle lairage 52

    Sheep lairage 52

    Pig lairage 52

    Deer lairage 53

    Clipping or cleaning of livestock 53

    Manure disposal 53

    Slaughterhall 53

    Stunning area 53

    Bleeding area 54

    Cattle carcase dressing 54

    On-the-rail dressing 55

    Sheep slaughterhall 56

    Pig slaughterhall 57

    Singeing and scraping 58

    Refrigeration accommodation 58

    Detained meat room 59

    Condemned meat room 60

    Hide and skin store 60

    Gut and tripe room 60

    Red offal room 60

    The edible fat room 61

    Cutting rooms 61

    Equipment wash 61

    Fresh meat dispatch area 61

    Vehicle washing 62

    General amenities for personnel 62

    Veterinary office 62

    Treatment of effluent 62

    Pollution parameters 63

    Treatment 63

    Preliminary treatment: Screening, solids and grit removal 63

    Secondary treatment 64

    Further reading 65

    4 Preservation of meat 67

    Physical changes in stored meat 67

    Chemical changes in stored meat 68

    Water activity or water availability (aw ) 68

    Meat curing 68

    Salt 68

    Ingredients used in curing 69

    Production of bacon and ham 69

    Cutting 70

    Application of the pickle 70

    Production of cooked hams 71

    Traditional dry-cured bacon 71

    Alternative dry cure 71

    Smoking 71

    Common defects in cured meat 71

    Micro-organisms on cured product 72

    Refrigeration 72

    Mechanical refrigeration 72

    Chilling of meat 73

    Freezing of meat 75

    Freeze-drying or lyophilisation 76

    Storage of fresh meat 76

    Vacuum packing 76

    Modified atmosphere packing 76

    Refrigerated meat transport and storage 76

    Changes in frozen meat 77

    ‘Weeping’ or ‘drip’ 77

    Durability of frozen meat 78

    Effect of freezing on pathogenic micro-organisms and parasites 78

    Heat: Thermal processing 78

    Traditional canning methodology 79

    Treatment of food to be canned 79

    Canning operations 80

    Canning of meats 82

    Foods packed in glass 82

    Spoilage in canned foods 82

    Types of spoilage 83

    The public health aspect of canned foods 85

    Other methods of meat preservation 86

    Antioxidants 86

    Preservatives 86

    Irradiation 86

    Infrared radiation 86

    Ultraviolet radiation 86

    Ionising radiation 86

    High pressure 87

    References 87

    Further reading 88

    5 Plant sanitation 89

    Reasons for cleaning and disinfecting plant 89

    ‘Scotoma effect’ or ‘factory-blindness’ 90

    The chemistry of cleaning 90

    The soil 91

    The substrate: Materials of construction 91

    Energies of cleaning 92

    Chemical and physical reactions of cleaning 92

    Detergents: Design and choice 95

    Principles of disinfection 95

    Biocidal active components 95

    Disinfectants: Design and choice 97

    Hygiene equipment and application methods 97

    Manual cleaning 98

    Foam cleaning 98

    Foam and disinfectant application equipment 98

    Gels 99

    Spray 100

    Fogging 100

    Knife and cutting tool disinfection during processing 100

    Machine washing 102

    Cleaning-in-place (CIP) 102

    Rinse systems 104

    Contamination and re-contamination 105

    Air 105

    Water 106

    People 106

    Surfaces 106

    Cleaning procedures 106

    The cleaning sequence 106

    Monitoring of hygiene 108

    Training 110

    Safety 110

    Effluent and external odour control 110

    Conclusion 111

    Note 111

    References 112

    6 From farm to slaughter 113

    Production of clean, healthy livestock 113

    Clean livestock 115

    Healthy livestock 117

    Safe use of animal medicines 117

    Safe disposal of animal waste 117

    Animal welfare on the farm 119

    Assessment of an animal’s welfare 119

    Transportation of livestock 122

    Loading and unloading 122

    The journey to slaughter 123

    EU transport legislation 123

    Protection during transport 123

    Means of transport 123

    Space allowances 123

    Duties of transporters 123

    Feed, water and rest periods 123

    Treatment of sick animals 124

    Travel documentation 124

    Loss of weight during transport 124

    Transport mortality 125

    Lairage construction 126

    Animal husbandry in the lairage 127

    Moving animals within the lairage 127

    Social stress 128

    Watering 128

    Fasting 128

    Resting of animals prior to slaughter 129

    Pre-slaughter handling and meat quality 129

    Stress and the animal 129

    Stress and meat quality 130

    Pre-slaughter feeding of sugars 131

    Traumatic injury 131

    Time of bruising 131

    Rough handling 132

    Presence of horns 132

    Temperament 132

    Stunning box design 132

    Mixing of animals 133

    Breed 133

    Incentives and education 133

    References 133

    Further reading 134

    7 Humane slaughter 135

    Pre-slaughter handling/restraint 136

    Cattle movement and restraint 136

    Pig movement and restraint 137

    The slaughtering process 137

    Assessment of unconsciousness at

    slaughter 137

    Methods of stunning 138

    Percussive stunning 138

    Head sites for percussive stunning 140

    Water jet stunning 142

    Carbon dioxide and other gas mixtures 142

    Electrical stunning 144

    Effect of stunning on meat quality 146

    Slaughter of minor species 146

    Slaughter of deer 146

    Slaughter of ostriches 147

    Slaughter of rabbits 147

    Other methods of slaughter 147

    Slaughter of poultry 148

    Electrical stunning of poultry 148

    Assessment of unconsciousness in

    electrical water bath stunned poultry 149

    Stunning/killing poultry with controlled atmospheres 149

    Percussive stunning of poultry 150

    Other methods of slaughter 150

    Effects of stunning on poultry meat quality 150

    Pithing 150

    Bleeding 151

    Cattle 151

    Sheep 151

    Pigs 152

    Efficiency of bleeding 153

    Slaughter without pre-stunning 153

    Shechita – Jewish religious slaughter 153

    Muslim methods of slaughter 156

    Slaughter of poultry without stunning 157

    References 157

    Further reading 158

    8 Meat hygiene practice 159

    Meat and animal by-products 159

    Hygienic production 159

    Sources of contamination 159

    Outer integument – hide, hair, fleece or skin 159

    Gastrointestinal tract 160

    Stunning and sticking 160

    Physical contact with structures 160

    Operatives 160

    Equipment and utensils 161

    The slaughter hall environment 161

    Vermin and pests 161

    Chemical contamination 162

    Methods of reducing contamination 162

    Dealing with the dirty animal 162

    Clipping cattle on line 163

    Protecting the meat from the worker 163

    Good hygiene practice 165

    Layout and flow lines 167

    Dressing techniques – Removal of hide/fleece/hair 167

    Preventing contamination from the gastrointestinal tract 170

    Post-slaughter decontamination 172

    Water 172

    Trimming 173

    Chemical treatments 173

    Bacteriophages 174

    Ultraviolet and pulsed high-intensity light 174

    Outputs of the slaughterhouse 174

    Treatment of edible co-products 175

    Fats 175

    Edible fat rendering 176

    Stomach and intestines 176

    Bones 177

    Hides and skins 177

    Animal by-products 178

    Category 1 178

    Category 2 179

    Category 3 (can be used for pet food) 180

    Materials for technical uses 181

    Hygiene requirements for animal by-product processing establishments 183

    Rendering processes 183

    References 184

    9 Meat inspection protocols 185

    The case for change 185

    The holistic approach 187

    Integrated Food Safety Assurance 187

    Farm to fork 187

    Food chain information 187

    Ante-mortem inspection 188

    Ante-mortem inspection procedure in the slaughter establishment 189

    Practical ante-mortem procedure 190

    Emergency slaughter animals 191

    Emergency slaughter: The decision on farm 191

    Emergency slaughter: The decision

    at the slaughter establishment 192

    Post-mortem inspection 192

    Facilities for post-mortem inspection 192

    Carcase identification and traceability 193

    Traditional post-mortem inspection 194

    Traditional post-mortem inspection of cattle 194

    Traditional post-mortem inspection of calves 196

    Traditional post-mortem inspection of sheep and goats 196

    Traditional post-mortem inspection of pigs 196

    Traditional post-mortem inspection of equines 197

    Traditional post-mortem inspection of poultry 197

    Decisions at post-mortem examination 198

    Common post-mortem findings 203

    Abscesses 203

    Omphalophlebitis 204

    Arthritis 204

    Oedema 204

    Pneumonia and pleurisy 205

    Endocarditis 206

    Pericarditis 207

    Pyelonephritis 207

    Bruising 208

    Pigmentation 208

    Haematogenous pigments 209

    Bile pigments 209

    Porphyrin 210

    Lipofuscin (‘wear-and-tear pigment’, pigment of brown atrophy, lipochrome, haemofuscin) 211

    Xanthosis (xanthomatosis, osteohaematochromatosis, brown atrophy) 211

    Tumours 211

    Classes of tumours 212

    Causes of tumours 212

    Effect on host 212

    Nomenclature of neoplasms 212

    Judgement of neoplasia 213

    Poor condition/emaciation 213

    Contamination 215

    Parasitic conditions 215

    Ascaris suum 215

    Echinococcus granulosus: Hydatidosis and hydatid cyst 215

    Taenia hydatigena (known as Cysticercus tenuicollis in larval stage) 216

    Taenia ovis (previously known as Cysticercus ovis) 216

    Fasciola hepatica: Liver fluke 216

    Paramphistomiasis 216

    Sarcocystis 216

    Courses of action 217

    Utilisation of post-mortem data 218

    Control of hygienic production 218

    Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) 219

    Implementation of an HACCP system 219

    Worldwide food safety standards 221

    References 222

    Further reading 222

    10 Poultry production, slaughter and inspection 223

    Production of poultry 223

    Poultry feedingstuffs 225

    Poultry flock health 226

    Catching and crating 226

    Reception and unloading 227

    Pre-slaughter inspection 228

    Shackling 228

    Stunning and slaughter 229

    Scalding and defeathering 230

    Defeathering 231

    Evisceration 232

    Chilling 235

    Ante-mortem health inspection 237

    Post-mortem inspection in the plant 240

    Decision of the official veterinarian at the post-mortem inspection 241

    General contamination 242

    Guidelines on trimming poultry 242

    Coliform infections 243

    Salmonellosis 243

    Campylobacteriosis 244

    Chlamydiosis (psittacosis/ornithosis) 245

    Miscellaneous conditions 245

    Dead on arrival 245

    Bruising and fractures 245

    Breast blisters and hock burn 246

    Ascites 246

    Slaughter liver or cholangiohepatitis 246

    Fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) 246

    Vices 246

    Contamination 247

    Decomposition 247

    Barking 247

    Diseases of the female reproductive system 247

    Oregon disease 247

    Over-scald 247

    Fevered carcases 247

    Septicaemia 247

    Insufficient bleeding 247

    Emaciation 247

    Viscera absent 247

    References 248

    Further reading 248

    11 Exotic meat production 249

    Rabbits 249

    Slaughter 249

    Inspection 250

    Post-mortem judgements in rabbit meat inspection 250

    Zoonoses 251

    Guidelines on contamination, missing viscera and trimming 252

    Farmed deer 252

    Handling and slaughter 252

    Park deer 254

    Wild deer 254

    Killing 254

    Ostriches 255

    Restraint 256

    Stunning 256

    Dressing 256

    Changes after slaughter 257

    Commercial squab production 257

    Further reading 257

    12 Food poisoning and meat microbiology 259

    Part 1: Food poisoning 259

    Types of food poisoning 259

    Surveillance of food poisoning 259

    Laboratory reports of enteric infections 260

    Outbreak surveillance 261

    General considerations 261

    Food-borne pathogens 261

    Part 2: Meat microbiology 267

    Bacteriological examination of carcases 267

    Part 3: Meat decomposition and spoilage 271

    Assessment of decomposition 277

    Further reading 278

    13 Controls on veterinary drug residues in the European Union 279

    Legal framework 279

    Licensed veterinary medicines 279

    Hormones and ß-Agonists 280

    Prohibited compounds 280

    Unauthorised and unlicensed compounds 281

    Regulatory limits: MRLs, MRPLs and RPAs 281

    The National Residue Control Plan in EU member states 282

    Compound groups 282

    Sampling levels for each species 282

    Relationship between species and substance to be analysed 283

    Testing procedures and performance characteristics 284

    Testing procedures 284

    CCα and CCβ 285

    Sampling of imported food 285

    Legal basis for sampling of imports from third countries 285

    Frequency of sampling of imports from third countries 285

    Interpretation of non-compliant results 285

    The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) 285

    Legal basis and description of the RASFF 285

    RASFF notification types 286

    Notification basis 286

    Action taken 286

    Distribution status 286

    Actions taken following infringements 286

    Analytical methods: Technical aspects 287

    Method specificity 287

    Performance characteristics 288

    Method validation 288

    Proficiency testing 289

    References 289

    14 Health and safety in meat processing 291

    Accident statistics 291

    UK legislation 291

    General duties 292

    Key topics requiring risk assessment 293

    Being struck by hand tools

    including knives 293

    Musculoskeletal disorders 294

    Slips, trips and falls 298

    Contact with machinery 298

    Transport 301

    Falls from a height 301

    Substances/microorganisms 302

    Zoonoses 303

    Specific control measures for zoonoses 303

    Animals 310

    Noise 310

    Cold environment 311

    General requirements 312

    References 316

    Index 319

    Author Information 
    David S Collins, MVB, DVPH(MH), MRCVS
 
 
 
 
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